Malthus’s essay on human suffering had a great influence on Darwin’s understanding of the natural world. He realized that the same competition for resources that Malthus described in humans was also present in nature, where organisms must compete for limited resources such as food, water, and shelter. This idea became a major part of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, which states that those individuals who are best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and pass on their genes. Additionally, Malthus’s essay helped Darwin to reconcile the idea of a benevolent creator with the presence of suffering in the world, as Malthus argued that suffering was a natural consequence of the laws of nature and did not require a malevolent or indifferent deity to explain it.
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